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XENOTRANSPLANTATION

Q.785. What is Xenotransplantation (Xt.)?

 

﴾﴾ VII. Xenotransplantation.  ﴿﴿

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Q.785. What is Xenotransplantation (Xt.)?      

 A. Xenotransplantation= [Tx. of cells, tissues & organs between individuals of different species.]. Shortage of human kidneys for Tx. is currently severe 🠞heightened risk of morbidity & mortality & longer period of waiting for many in need of transplants. Xt. would eliminate this fundamental problem of clinical Tx.

 

Possible sources of xenografts are: non-human primates & non-primates, especially the pig. Sp. benefits é using swine xenografts include:[availability in unlimited No., organs of appropriate size, and a limited risk of transmitting infection]. There’re significant hurdles to successful application of Xt., which include:   [Immunological resp. of recipient agst the graft, physiological limitations of the graft, infection & ethical considerations]. Powerful immunologic reactions[hyper.Ac, Ac. vascular, cellular & ch. Rj.]. Specific measures unique to Xt. have been utilized in the attempt to over-come these issues. If biologic hurdles are overcome, kidney Xt. could be used for select populations. These may incl. presensitized individuals, young infants é kidney failure, and others.

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Q.786. What is the future approach?         

A. Xt. may appear in a step-wise fashion. As porcine tissue are available in:

1)    Porcine livers: currently used as devices for ttt. of fulminant hepatic failure.

2)    Porcine skin is used for ttt. of burns.

3)    Porcine cells are Tx. into ptn. é Parkinson's dis. & unremitting pain.

Furthermore, Tx. of porcine hepatocytes & islet cells may soon be undertaken. Fr. these clinical activities, information will emerge concerning the immune resp. to Xt. & risks of infection. It cn be anticipated that a next step will be "bridge" transplants, in which a porcine kidney, heart, or liver are implanted to provide temporary support until more definitive ttt can be available. It’s difficult to envision how & under which conditions porcine kidney can be used as clinical bridge.

Bridge transplants will provide important information about manifestation & control of the vascular responses to Xt.. Only when these responses are effectively controlled over a period of months is it likely that the porcine kidney will be used as a permanent xenogeneic transplant.       

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Q.787. What are the possible future indications?

A. If the biological hurdles to R. Xt are overcome, the next critical😎question is which ptns é R. dis. wd be most suitable to receive Xt. This’s esp. challenging because R.Tx., unlike Tx. of other organs, is not necessarily life-saving because DX is readily available in most countries. On the other hand, Xt might be esp. appealing as the cost cd eventually be lower than that in other procedures . In addition, Xt might be preferred in certain medical settings:

(1) Presensitized ptn.Xt may be initially considered for a limited No. of subjects who’re pre-sensitized to multiple potential donors and are therefore less likely to receive an allograft. In this setting, successful performance of Xt assu-mes tht anti-HLA A.B. do not cross-react é porcine Mj histocompatibility Ag.(SLA) (2)Infants: R. Xt may be appropriate for young infants é R.F. in whom DX is very difficult to perform. Such infants are also difficult to Tx. because of mism-atch in size between adult kidney & infant. A xenograft cd be used in selected cases to allow infant to grow to a size that’s more optimal for alloTx..                     (3) Hyperoxaluria : Iry hyperoxaluria may be suitable candidates because conventional Tx. experience in these ptns has been relatively disappointing. R. oxalosis 🠞loss of the graft occ. in many patients.                                          (4) HIV: HIV+ve ptn. é R.F. may be candidates for Xt, since many Tx. centers exclude such ptns However, given the long-term survival of some HIV-+ve ptn. with current therapy, a network of centers in the U.S. has been created where feasibility of transplanting these ptns is being evaluated in a systematic manner. Other Tx.  programs are considering Tx. of HIV ptns on an individual basis.

 Q.788. What are the barriers to xenotransplantation?   💢💢

A. There’re signif. hurdles to successful application of Xt., wch incl.:

1)    Infection.

2)    Ethical considerations.

3)    Physiological limitations of the graft.

4)    Immunological responses of recipient against the graft.

COMMENTS

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Hemodialysis,21,My Publications,2,Peritoneal dialysis,14,Prevention of renal failure,61,Renal face,43,Renal Transplantation,49,TOP RECENT,37,
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Q.785. What is Xenotransplantation (Xt.)?
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
fedo
https://www.fedokidney.com/2020/10/xenotransplantation.html
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https://www.fedokidney.com/2020/10/xenotransplantation.html
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