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Q.641. How to estimate the adequacy of peritoneal dialysis?


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Q.641. How to estimate the adequacy of peritoneal dialysis?

A. Ssc: (Minimal total Small Solute Clearance) target values:  minimal weekly target clearance (Kt/V urea & Cr. cl.) have been published by U.S. & international societies. A general consensus prev. recmm. target weekly DX. dose are not needed, wch may unnecessarily 🠞 transferred to HDX because of inadequate DX. é PD. ADEMEX study & Hong Kong trial hv shown: using standard P.D. regimens, attempts to maintain prev. recmm.: Ssc goals are not necessary. NKF-KDOQI 2006 guidelines revised the minimal delivered Ssc goals: Ptn. é Kru (considered signif. if ur. vol. >100 mL/d.👈) the minimal "delivered" dose of Ssc shd be total (PD & Kru) Kt/Vurea of at least 1.7/w..Ptn. without Kru (insignif. if urine volume is <100 mL/d.), minimal "delivered" dose of Ssc shouldd be at least 1.7/w. European Best Practices Guidelines 2005 suggest: minimum wkly target Kt/Vurea of 1.7.
The recmm. minimal delivered total Ssc of Kt/Vurea shd be at least 1.7/w. for CAPD. Measures preserving Kru is recommended. The minimal delivered total Ssc recomm. in the new guidelines are correct based on current evidence.
A requirement for higher values may be most applicable in U.S., a country in which higher adequacy goals may be necessary for a relatively older & sicker ptn..In addition, higher values may be necessary in those eating more protein who may have a metabolic need for relatively higher Ssc rates. In U.S., target doses sufficiently above minimum threshold to ensure minimum level of DX. dose , delivered to all ptn. target Kt/Vurea = 1.8/w..  
Automated P.D.: No prospective trials available & looking at relative risk of death in relationship to dose in APD . The 2006 K/DOQI work group: the higher targets previously recommended are not required é APD. Minimal dose of Kt/V urea should be 1.7/w. for APD. Once ptn is anuric , he should undergo 24 h./d. PD to optimize middle molecular wt solute clearance. This’s because randomized trials hv only evaluated 24 h./d. PD. Calculation of solute clearance: Weekly Kt/Vurea cn be estimated fr. the foll.: daily Pr. urea clearance (Kt)= sum of product of all drain volume (Pr.+ Kru) + ratio of urea conc. in the drained Dzt or urine to tht in pl. (D/P urea). If there’s significant Kru (residual kidney vol.:>100 mL/d.), both Pr. & residual R. components of Ssc are used in calculation.
Fluid balance:🠝 body fluid 🠝 M.R. in P.D.. Fluid overload shd be evaluated & adjust P.D. prescription. To improve vol. status: [🠋dietary sod.; loop diuretics é signif. Kru; and/or change U.F. profile of long dwell or use aother osmotic agents].  

Q.642. What are the problems with solute clearance & U.F. in continuous P.D.?

A. Ch. P.D. can be complicated by : inadequate “solute” clearance or 🠋U.F..    

(1) Inadequate solute clearance:= [increased BUN & pl. cr. or app. of uremic Sms despite seemingly successful PD]. It may be caused by poor compliancehigh protein intake or hypercatabolic state, or 🠋intrinsic P.M. permeability. These causes cn be distinguished by PET. Initial ttt more intensive DX., achieved by 🠝 volume of inflow Dzt/exchange. If failed transfer to H.DX..

(2) Impaired U.F.: ch.ch. by persistently low drain vol. after 4 h. of dwell. It’s caused by 🠝 Pr. solute transport, wch may be transient, due to Ac. peritonitis, or sustained, often due to repeated episodes of peritonitis. Ptn é 🠋 U.F. may be ttted by shortening dwell time, or by using more freq. hypertonic exchanges. Other options: instillation of icodextrin Dzt., or use of diuretics in ptn. é Kru. Occ. ptn é U.F. failure may require maintenance H.DX. via temporary C.V. cath..

Combination of N. or low solute transport & low drain volumes sugg. Pr. cth. malfunction, extra-Pr. Dzt. leakage, enhanced absorption by Pr. lymphatics or 🠋 in U.F. Co.. A dcr. U.F. Co. is rare, and may occur in conjunction é SEP.

Q.643. How to increase K/t.V. in P.D. patients?

   A. Three tools to incr. K/tv.:        👌 
(1) 🠝 No. of dwells. (Dwell = Exchange frequency).
(2) 🠝 Size of dwells.
(3) Use Icodextrin é day time.

Q.644. What is Quantum?  !     What is Adequest?  !

A. Quantiam: a device to check No. of dwells to check ptn. compliance in P.D.
A. Adequest: a formula developed by Baxter for evaluation of P.D adequacy.

Q.645. What is PET (Peritoneal equilibration test)?

A. PET = [a semi-quantitative assess. of Pr. Membrane” transport function”. ]  Ratio of solute conc. in Dzt & plasma (D/P ratio) at sp. times (t) dur. dwell signifies the extent of solute equilibration. Four categories are recognized: ✌ ✌
1)   High Transporter Rapid Loss of concentration gradient.
2)   High Average.
3)   Low Average.
4)   Low transporter.

Q.646. How & when to do PET?
PET is a highly reproducible procedure  consisting of 4 h. DX. exch. é DX. solution. The standardized test measures Dzt Cr. & glucose at 0, 2 & 4 h. of dwell & S.Cr. & glucose at any time dur. the test. We perform a PET 1-2 w. after initiation of P.D., as a baseline value.      
Clinical applications: to classify Pr. membrane func. & assess reasons underlying inadequate DX. or UF. To best assess UF failure, some recommend : modified PET 🠞 2.5 % dextrose + 4.25% dextrose 🠞 maximal osmotic drive. With this test, failure: defined as [U.F. volume <400mL] after a 4 h. dwell with 2 L. of 4.25 % dextrose (3.86 % glucose). It’s not customary to perform a PET dur. or after episode of peritonitis as Ac. changes us. reversed after recovery.

Q.647. How frequent are abdominal hernias occurring in continuous P.D.?

A. Hernia rates in P.D. are currently rep.: 0.06-0.08 /ptn./y. Pathophysiology: Principal risk f. for hernia formation reflect anatomic, hydrostatic, or metabolic f.s. Sm.s incl. [painless swelling é different sites, discomfort or disfigurement & problems related to hernia complc.]. Migration of pr. fluid into other body structures can 🠞 either abdominal wall or genital edema. More serious complc. are rare but incl.: small bowel obstruction & intestinal incarceration and/or strangulation.

Measures taken pre- & post-operative to 🠟 risk of hernia & Dzt. leaks incl.: evaluation & repair of existing hernias, the location & procedures used for P.D. cth. Placement & methods to 🠟 intra-abd. pressure in post-op. period. Ptns developed hernia after initiation of PD shd undergo elective repair. Use of a polypropylene mesh prosthesis 🠞🠟risk of post-op. hernia. Low-vol. supine P.D. can be resumed several d.s after repair. TTT of Dzt. leak varies in ptn. é or without associated hernia. ttt of an uncomplc. Dzt. leak (é no associated hernia) cn initially be ttt.ed by temporarily stopping PD, changing to low vol., supine, or dry day PD, or by short term transfer to HDX. ttt of recurrent leaks depends on location & etiology of the leak.

Q.648. what is the role of P.D. in treatment of acute kidney injury (ARF)?

A. PD is an overlooked procedure for dialytic support in AKI, Ac. PD remains a viable option for ttt of selected ptn. é AKI. This’s esp. true for hemodynamically compromised or hv sev. coagulation abn. or when other modalities are not readily available. Compared é other available modalities, PD hs several adv. as a RRT in AKI. These incl.:[Wide availability, ease of performance & access placement, ability to remove large amounts of fluid in hemodynamically unstable ptn, easy & gradual correction of acid-base & electrolyte imbalance, no need for anticoagulation and highly biocompatible]. There’re No. of indications & C.I. for Ac. PD in AKI. Most are only relative indications or relative C.I. for the technique. Ac. PD cn be performed intermittently or continuously (depending upon: desired fluid & solute removal) & either manually or APD. Ac. manual PD is us. performed by nurs-es. By comparison, automated device or cycler 🠟 the need for constant nursing supervision. Standard Ac. PD prescription including: {length of session, Dzt. Composition, exchange vol., inflow & outflow (drain) periods, dwell time, No. of exchanges, Dzt additives & adjusting fluid balance}.

Q.649. What are the complications associated with acute PD?
A. Acute P.D. complcation, some are serious, life-threatening, many are preventable:                 

I. Mech. complications: Mostly not serious, but may🠟DX. Efficiency, which including.:
1)   Abdominal Pain/discomfort: Mild abd. pain/discomfort is common & us. 2ndry to abdominal distention. Moderate/sev. pain us. due to  cth.-related complc. or infc. .
2)   Intraabd. hge: Mild bleeding is frequent & can be obs. é cth. placement. However, severe intraabd-ominal hge hs bn rep. fr. cth., partic. semirigid Ac. cth.
3)   Leakage: is common & ttt.: 🠟 exchange vol. for 1st 24 h. Temporary cessation of PD may be necessary &  bowel evacuation cn mitigate the problem.
4)   Inadequate drainage: usually due to 🠟 bowel motility. Bowel cathartics improve drainage, while manipulation of cth. may occasionally be necessary.
5)   Bowel perforation: Observed é semirigid Ac PD cth.Severe abdominal pain, blood-tinged Pr. effluent, intraabd. hge & (rarely) shock. Bowel/fecal material can be noted é effluent Dzt., ttt.: [Cessation of PD., cath. removal, i.v. A.B. & bowel repair].
II. Infc. complic.: Common, esp. peritonitis, which can be significant dcrease by maintaining sterile precautions during cth. placement & preventing contamination during ex-changes. Leaking Dzt predisposes to peritonitis. Puncture site abscess can result from bedside placement of Ac. PD cth., esp. missed attention to sterile technique.                                                                                                                                         

 III. Pulmonary” complications:
1)   Basal atelectasis & pneumonia: cn result from 🠉 IAP associated é Ac. PD. inadequate lung expansion & stasis of secretions.
2)   Pl. effusion: fluid migration  👉 to thoracic cavity, hydrothorax, cn occ. é  diaphragmtic defect or its lymphatics Rt. sided eff.(most common). 🠟 IAP by🠟exchange vol. & using supine position wil help. Pleurodesis rarely required.

3)   Aspiration : 🠉intraPr. pressure predisposes to GERD 🠉risk of aspiration.

IV. CVS. complications:
1.    Hypovolemia: due to excessive U.F.
2.    Cardiac arrhythmias: due mostly to electrolyte & metabolic disturbances, or diaphragmatic elevation.
V. Metabolic complications:
1)   Hyperglycemia.
2)   Hypernatremia.
3)   Hypoglycemia.
4)   Hypokalemia: Standard PD solutions do not contain K+, add K+ to Dzt.
VI. Protein loss: May exceed 5 g/d.. which incr. by aggressive U.F. & infection.